An app that tracks sickness via GPS? Yep, this exists.
An app that tracks sickness via GPS? Yep, this exists.
I think if they work, then why shouldn’t we use them? Induced pleuripotent stem cells do not have to be taken from a fetus because they can be “induced” into their stem-cell form. Since the ethical dilemma on that stage seems to be taken care of, I see no reason why we shouldn’t be using it to help people grow back what they’ve lost. How feasible that is is still up for debate. Knowing the embryological and intricate signaling that has to happen for a limb to even bud is incredibly complex.
The left ventricle has a whole lot more pressure to overcome (systemic pressure) pushing the blood into the body. The right lung on the other hand has much less pressure to overcome from the pulmonary circulation in the lungs. Thus, more muscle in the left ventricle is needed, accounting for its bigger size compared to the right. Hope that made sense!
To anyone that’s ever broken a bone, the negatives of traditional plaster casts are familiar: they’re cumbersome, heavy, and can get rather smelly. Victoria University of Wellington graduate Jake Evill is looking to change all that with his Cortex cast. A mere concept for now, Evill says the cast — which is specifically fitted to each wearer based on X-rays of the fractured bone and a 3D scan of its surrounding limb — introduces many benefits. First and foremost, you’d be able to wear a longsleeve shirt over the lightweight, ventilated nylon cast. The open design is also shower-friendly, unlike bulky plaster casts.
The Cortex would be 3D printed on site, according to Evill, and each cast would be most dense near the location of a wearer’s fracture. “After many centuries of splints and cumbersome plaster casts that have been the itchy and smelly bane of millions of children, adults and the aged alike, the world over, we at last bring fracture support into the twenty-first century,” says Evill. His Cortex cast may still be awkward from a fashion perspective, but it’s a marked improvement over where things stand today.
Watch this CDC map change from 1985 to 2010 -and get more colorful along the way. It shows the percentage of people medically defined as obese. Obesity was once an odd condition, but for the U.S. it just gets more common every year. The Atlantic has a list of the metropolitan areas that have the lowest and highest rates of obesity. (However, moving to Colorado will only help if you are willing to climb mountains, hike, and ski.)
(TIME.com) — Researchers report a breakthrough in generating powerful antibodies that can neutralize HIV.
An HIV infection is really an intensive molecular arms race launched from the minute the virus infects a new host.
AIDS progresses not because the body isn’t capable of fighting off HIV — it is. But the immune defenses eventually succumb to the virus in the final standoff.
Now researchers led by Barton Haynes, director of the Duke University Human Vaccine Institute at Duke University School of Medicine, believe they have found a way to tip the odds in the immune system’s favor.
From the moment of infection, the immune system goes on alert and immediately generates antibodies designed to attach to and destroy HIV. And for the first few weeks, these antibodies are successful, eliminating all but a few viruses that remain hidden away from the body’s surveillance systems.
These viral stalwarts then mutate to escape detection and start to flourish, expanding until new antibodies are generated to dispatch them. That launches another wave of viral destruction that pushes HIV to mutate yet again, prompting another immune attack, and so on, until eventually the body isn’t able to keep up with the virus and pushes out poor, or no more additional antibodies that can neutralize HIV.
That’s the scenario in about 80% of those who are infected with HIV. But in a fortunate 20%, this arms race is stacked in the host’s favor, with antibodies that are able to neutralize not just the latest, specific mutated version of HIV but a broader range of viral marauders.
But most attempts to convince the body to churn out these antibodies haven’t been successful, primarily because the antibodies take on an unusual shape that marks them for destruction by the very immune system that generated them. In addition, these antibodies can bind to and destroy healthy cells as well as HIV-infected ones, making them a potentially useful but unpredictable partner in fighting the virus.
But by carefully mapping the different mutations that HIV generates, and the resulting antibodies made against them in an African patient who is able to produce broadly neutralizing antibodies, Haynes and his colleagues believe they have come up with a way to drive the immune system to preferentially churn out these HIV-fighting immune cells.
"We followed individuals from the time of HIV infection to the time they generated broadly neutralizing antibodies, and mapped and isolated the virus at every step along the way so we now don’t have to guess any more about what induced those antibodies," he says. "We have a map on how to recreate the sequential (versions of HIV) that could drive particular antibody lineages."
The work, which was published in the journal Nature, was possible because Haynes had collected and saved blood samples over the course of about three years from roughly 400 patients, starting within weeks of their infection.
Researchers found that the first round of broadly neutralizing antibodies generally appeared about 14 weeks after infection, and these were better able to bind to portions of HIV that the virus doesn’t change as quickly or as frequently. That makes the antibodies useful weapons in attacking the virus’ Achilles heel, and a potentially powerful target for an effective vaccine.
"Now we have a picture of how these antibodies developed, so what we are doing is figuring out how to use them to make a vaccine," says Haynes.
The challenge will be to push the body to pump out these antibodies rather than the more specific ones aimed at the ever-changing portions of HIV. It turns out that most infected people do produce these antibodies, but HIV distracts the immune system into crowding them out with all the subsequent iterations they convince the body to make against the mutating virus.
"We are trying to take an unusual or rare event and make it more common," says Haynes.
Ultimately, he adds, a vaccine will probably need to generate several of these broadly neutralizing antibodies; each person tends to make unique versions that have differing efficacy in stopping HIV.
But there’s precedent for such an approach, since the antiretroviral drugs that now control HIV infections are used in combination to hit the virus at more than one point in its life cycle.
"The hope is that by mapping individual pathways to generating broadly neutralizing antibodies, we can find some commonalities among people even though everyone is different, and that gives us hope for using these pathways in a vaccine," says Haynes. "It’s a huge effort but it looks like it’s going to pay off."
Brilliant Fix For a Common Problem.
Small things like this get me so excited. This is a new design of an inhaler that fixes some of the most common problems we have today with inhalers. It’s unique design allows it to have precise delivery of the needed amount of medication, and a counter allows it to keep track of how many more uses you can have.
The NEXThaler almost makes me want to have asthma so I can try out this cool new inhaler.
A coronary stent is a small tube (typically of metal framework) placed in the coronary arteries that supply the heart, to keep the arteries open in the treatment of coronary heart disease. It is used in a procedure called percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Stents reduce chest pain and have been shown to improve survivability in the event of an acute myocardial infarction. Similar stents and procedures are used in non-coronary vessels e.g. in the legs in peripheral artery disease.
However, as the stent is a foreign object (not native to the body), it incites an immune response. This may cause scar tissue (cell proliferation) to rapidly grow over the stent. In addition, there is a strong tendency for clots to form at the site where the stent damages the arterial wall. Since platelets are involved in the clotting process, patients must take dual antiplatelet therapy afterwards, usually clopidogrel and aspirin for one year and aspirin indefinitely. In order to reduce the treatment, a new generation of stent has been developed with biodegradable polymer.However, the dual antiplatelet therapy may be insufficient to fully prevent clots that may result in stent thrombosis; these and the cell proliferation may cause the standard (“bare-metal”) stents to become blocked (restenosis). Drug-eluting stents were designed to lessen this problem; by releasing an antiproliferative drug (drugs typically used against cancer or as immunosuppressants), they can help avoid this in-stent restenosis (re-narrowing).
Researchers at Brown University have succeeded in creating the first wireless, implantable, rechargeable, long-term brain-computer interface. The wireless BCIs have been implanted in pigs and monkeys for over 13 months without issue, and human subjects are next.
MRI scan of a human subject from the cranium to the feet.